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Will China Finally Announce its Gold Holdings to the World?

By Jim Rickards



A Popular Myth

One of the most persistent story lines among gold bugs and market participants who foresee the collapse of the dollar goes something like this:

China and many emerging markets including the other BRICS are looking for a way out of the global fiat currency system. That system is dominated today by the U.S. dollar. This dollar dominance allows the U.S. to force certain kinds of behavior in foreign policy and energy markets.

Countries that don’t comply with U.S. wishes find themselves frozen out of global payment systems and find their banks unable to transact in dollars for needed imports or to get paid for their exports. Russia, Iran, and Syria have all been subjected to this treatment recently.

China does not like this system any more than Russia or Iran but is unwilling to confront the U.S. Head-on. Instead, China is quietly accumulating massive amounts of gold and building alternative financial institutions such as the Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank, AIIB, and the BRICS-sponsored New Development Bank, NDB.


gold_dragonImage credit:


When the time is right, China will suddenly announce its actual gold holdings to the world and simultaneously turn its back on the Bretton Woods institutions such as the IMF and World Bank. China will back its currency with its own gold and use the AIIB and NDB and other institutions to lead a new global financial order.

Russia and others will be invited to join the Chinese in this new international monetary system. As a result, the dollar will collapse, the price of gold will skyrocket, and China will be the new global financial hegemon. The gold bugs will live happily ever after. The only problem with this story is that the most important parts of it are wrong.

As usual, the truth is much more intriguing than the popular version. Here’s what’s really going on.

Joining the Old Boys’ Club

As with most myths, parts of the story are true. China is secretly acquiring thousands of tons of gold. China is creating new multilateral lending institutions. No doubt, China will announce an upward revision in its official gold holdings sometime in the next year or so.

In fact, Bloomberg News reported on April 20, 2015, under the headline “The Mystery of China’s Gold Stash May Soon Be Solved,” that “China may be preparing to update its disclosed holdings…”


1-CHINAimports-and-productionChina’s gold production and net gold imports since 2000 (the import data shown above are adjusted for China’s re-exports of gold) – click to enlarge.



But the reasons for the acquisition of gold and the updated disclosures, if they happen, are not the ones the blogosphere believes. China is not trying to destroy the old boys’ club — they are trying to join it.

China understands that despite the strong growth and huge size of its economy, the yuan is not ready to be a true reserve currency and will not be ready for years to come. It is true that usage of the yuan is increasing in international transactions. But it is still used for less than 2% of global payments, compared with over 40% for the U.S. Dollar.

Usage in payments is only one indicium of a true reserve currency, and not the most important one. The key to being a reserve currency is not payments but investments. There needs to be a deep, liquid bond market denominated in the reserve currency. That way, when countries earn the target currency in trade, they have someplace to invest their surplus.



2-RMB_january2015_image02At of the end of 2014, the yuan has risen to 5th place as a global payments currency – and yet, total yuan payments still only amount to 2.17% of the total – click to enlarge.


Right now, if you earn yuan trading with China, all you can do with the money is leave it in a bank deposit or spend it in China. There is no large yuan-denominated bond market to invest in.

In addition to a bond market, you need the “plumbing” of a bond market. This includes a network of primary dealers; hedging tools such as futures and options; financing tools such as repurchase agreements, derivatives, clearance, and settlement channels; and a good rule of law to settle disputes, secure creditors, and deal with bankruptcies.

China has none of these things on the needed scale or level of maturity. When it comes to true reserve currency status, the yuan is not ready for prime time.

China is also not ready to launch a gold-backed currency. Even if it has 10,000 tons of gold – far more than it currently admits, the market value of that gold is only about $385 billion. China’s M1 money supply as of April 2015 is about $5.4 trillion. In other words, even on assumptions highly favorable to China, their gold is worth only about 7% of their money supply.



3-china-money-supply-m1China’s narrow money supply M1, in yuan


Historically, countries that want to run a successful gold standard need 20–40% of the money supply in gold in order to stand up to bank runs in the market. China could reduce its money supply to get to the 20% level, but this would be extremely deflationary and throw the Chinese economy into a depression that would trigger political instability. So that won’t happen.

In short, China can’t have a reserve currency because it does not have a bond market, and it can’t have a gold-backed currency because it has nowhere near enough gold.

The Plan and the Endgame

So what is China’s plan? China wants to do what the U.S. has done, which is to remain on a paper currency standard but make that currency important enough in world finance and trade to give China leverage over the behavior of other countries.

The best way to do that is to increase its voting power at the IMF and have the yuan included in the IMF basket for determining the value of the special drawing right. Getting those two things requires the approval of the United States because the U.S. has veto power over important changes at the IMF. The U.S. can stand in the way of Chinese ambitions.



Chinese President Hu and other leaders applaud as they watch celebrations to mark 60th anniversary of founding of People's Republic of China, in central BeijingChina’s ambitious new emperors – given their central planning proclivities, they are extremely unlikely to give up on fiat money

Photo credit: Wu Xiaoling / REUTERS / Xinhua



The result is a kind of grand bargain in which China will get the IMF status it wants, but the U.S. will force China to be on its best behavior in return. This means that China must keep the yuan pegged to the dollar at or near the current level. It also means that China can have gold but can’t talk about it. In order to “join the club,” China must play by club rules.

The rules of the game say you need a lot of gold to play, but you don’t recognize the gold or discuss it publicly. Above all, you do not treat gold as money, even though gold has always been money.

The members of the club keep their gold handy just in case, but otherwise, they publicly disparage it and pretend it has no role in the international monetary system. China will be expected to do the same. It’s important to note that China will not act in the best interests of gold investors; it will act in the best interests of China.

Moreover, just because the grand bargain is in sight does not mean it will be easy to realize. Both sides are jockeying for leverage.


4-YuanDollar/Yuan: first China introduced a “crawling peg” and allowed the yuan to strengthen significantly against the US dollar. Since the dollar has begun to rise against other major currencies, the yuan has been held in a sideways channel by the PBoC, staying fairly stable between roughly 6.05 and 6.30. Many observers have been surprised that China has so far kept the yuan strong, but this policy actually makes sense in the context of China’s longer term ambitions – click to enlarge.

Beijing launched its own development bank to put pressure on the IMF. The U.S. Treasury blames the tea party for delays in approving China’s new votes at the IMF. Meanwhile, the White House does nothing to break the logjam in Congress. The White House is happy to let China twist in the wind while the game goes on behind closed doors.

Meanwhile, China will probably announce its increased gold holdings later this year. But don’t expect fireworks. China has three accounts where it keeps gold – the People’s Bank of China, PBOC; the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, SAFE; and the China Investment Corp., CIC.

China can move enough gold to PBOC when it is ready and report that to the IMF for purposes of allowing the yuan in the SDR. Meanwhile, it can still hide gold in SAFE and CIC until it needs it in the future.

China will also probably be admitted into the SDR basket later this year. Far from launching its own gold-backed currency, China will be acknowledging that the SDR is the true world money as far as the major powers are concerned.

Why would China want to give up on fiat money any more than the Fed or the European Central Bank? All central banks prefer paper money to gold because they can print the paper kind. Why give up on that monopoly of power?

Gold is still the safest asset, and every investor should have some in his portfolio. The price of gold will go significantly higher in the years ahead. But contrary to what you read in the blogs, gold won’t go higher because China is confronting the U.S. or launching a gold-backed currency.

It will go higher when all central banks, China’s and the U.S.’s included, confront the next global liquidity crisis, worse than the one in 2008, and individual citizens stampede into gold to preserve wealth in a world that has lost confidence in all central banks.

When that happens, physical gold may not be available at all. The time to build your personal gold reserve is now.



Chinese gold barHello there … best build your stash now, before the need to preserve wealth becomes an overwhelming imperative.

Photo via

  • Lawrie

    The chart showing Chinese gold imports via HK and Chinese gold production may be slightly misleading in terms of the true position given that from 2014 far more gold was imported directly into mainland China than before as noted in Swiss and U.S. export statistics. We suspect around 1/3 of Chinese gold imports, possibly more, are now going direct to the mainland. Prior to 2014 little was imported directly so then HK net exports to China were a good proxy for over all Chinese gold imports, but not now. If we assume 1/3 of Chinese gold imports are coming in direct, the final bar in the chart would be up to around 1550 tons which would perhaps be a better representation. Otherwise I think this is a great article and spells out the position extremely well – particularly with respect to the way China hides its total gold holdings figure by using ‘non-reportable’ accounts – and even more so in the assessment of China’s overall game plan.

  • commenter377

    The article makes the important point that the benefit of a fiat currency is to the issuer, rather than to the holder. This is especially so when the currency has the status of an international reserve currency. Since 1971, the US dollar has lost value against gold at the average rate of 6.2% per annum. Since its inception, the euro has done worse; while sterling and the yen have fared no better over any long period of comparison. China has $3.7 trillion in foreign reserves. After allowing for interest, and assuming continuation of the historic fiat degradation rate, China is thus losing the present value of over 3000 tonnes of gold per annum on these reserves. Further, the massive rounds of quantitative easing by the Fed, ECB, BoE, and BoJ (and even the SNB), combined with intractable problems of government deficits, hardly support the view that the fiat degradation rate will ease off. Since the renminbi has no international reserve status, China cannot counter this loss by inflating its own fiat—it would only be robbing its own citizens by doing so. Given China’s structural trade surplus, so that any capital required for trade can be met out of cash flow, China has no current need for this wasting $3.7 trillion reserve, and so should think of ways to convert it into something that will keep its value.

    This is where it gets tricky. Expenditure on that scale in any real-asset market will, for the duration of the purchasing period, drive the price against the buyer. So it has to be in a market where the elevated terminal price can be permanently maintained by the buyer through the scarcity value it can achieve by maintaining its commanding position in the total stock and withholding it from sale. Do the arithmetic, and it turns out that there is a Goldilocks market—not too big and not too small—in which $3.7 trillion can be spent in a way that satisfies this criterion. Moreover the asset type is secure in that it may be held on the owner’s territory. It is left as an exercise to the reader to work out which market this might be.